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Oil and Civil Conflict : Can Public Spending Have a Mitigation Effect?

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dc.contributor.author Singh, Raju Jan
dc.contributor.author Higashijima, Masaaki
dc.contributor.author Bodea, Cristina
dc.date.accessioned 2014-12-03T14:50:07Z
dc.date.available 2014-12-03T14:50:07Z
dc.date.issued 2014-11
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10986/20607
dc.description.abstract This paper explores the conditions under which public spending could minimize violent conflict related to oil wealth. Previous work suggests that oil can lead to violent conflict because it increases the value of the state as a prize or because it undermines the state's bureaucratic penetration. Yet, little has been said on how oil wealth could be used to prevent the onset of violent conflict through public spending by buying off citizens and elites, increasing state legitimacy by providing basic services, or strengthening the military and security apparatus. The empirical analysis (148 countries over 1960-2009) shows that higher levels of military spending are associated with lower risk of small- and large-scale conflict onset in countries rich in oil and gas. By contrast, in economies with little natural resources, increases in military spending are associated with a higher risk of conflict. Welfare expenditure is associated with lower risk of small-scale conflict, irrespective of the level of oil revenue. However, general government spending does not appear to have any robust mitigating effects. en
dc.language English
dc.language.iso en_US
dc.publisher World Bank Group, Washington, DC
dc.relation.ispartofseries Policy Research working paper;no. WPS 7100
dc.rights CC BY 3.0 IGO
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/igo/
dc.subject REBEL GROUPS
dc.subject CIVIL CONFLICTS
dc.subject PEACE
dc.subject LITERACY RATES
dc.subject RELIGIOUS FRACTIONALIZATION
dc.subject CONFLICT
dc.subject REBEL RECRUITMENT
dc.subject INTERNATIONAL BANK
dc.subject POLICE
dc.subject WAR PROJECT
dc.subject ARMED FORCES
dc.subject MILITARY FORCES
dc.subject PERSONAL ENRICHMENT
dc.subject REBEL
dc.subject YOUNG SOLDIERS
dc.subject WORLD DEVELOPMENT
dc.subject CITIZENS
dc.subject INVESTMENT IN EDUCATION
dc.subject POLITICAL STABILITY
dc.subject INTERPERSONAL SKILLS
dc.subject MILITARY REGIMES
dc.subject BATTLE
dc.subject IMF
dc.subject INCREASE IN RISK
dc.subject POLITICAL INSTABILITY
dc.subject ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY
dc.subject INCOME DISTRIBUTION
dc.subject CITIZEN
dc.subject REBELLION
dc.subject LACK OF DEMOCRACY
dc.subject OBSERVER
dc.subject CONFLICT PREVENTION
dc.subject MILITARY OPPOSITION
dc.subject DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
dc.subject CIVIL CONFLICT
dc.subject POLICY RESEARCH
dc.subject RISKS OF CONFLICT
dc.subject LIVING STANDARDS
dc.subject RECONSTRUCTION
dc.subject INFANT
dc.subject WAR DURATION
dc.subject SOCIAL WELFARE
dc.subject SOCIAL EXPENDITURES
dc.subject ARMED CONFLICT
dc.subject SAFETY NETS
dc.subject DEPENDENCE
dc.subject WAR ECONOMY
dc.subject PROGRESS
dc.subject FERTILITY
dc.subject DEMOCRACY
dc.subject POST-CONFLICT
dc.subject CONFLICT RESEARCH
dc.subject SANITATION
dc.subject NATURAL RESOURCES
dc.subject COERCION
dc.subject ADULT LITERACY
dc.subject DISPUTES
dc.subject REBEL GROUP
dc.subject NATIONALISM
dc.subject NATURAL GAS
dc.subject POLICY RESEARCH WORKING PAPER
dc.subject INCOME PER CAPITA
dc.subject DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
dc.subject COLD WAR
dc.subject OPPORTUNITY COST
dc.subject INTERNATIONAL WAR
dc.subject CONFLICT RESOLUTION
dc.subject SOCIAL MOBILITY
dc.subject TERRORISM
dc.subject MILITARIZATION
dc.subject CIVIL WARS
dc.subject PENSIONS
dc.subject LINGUISTIC FRACTIONALIZATION
dc.subject STATE UNIVERSITY
dc.subject CIVIL UNREST
dc.subject CONFLICTS
dc.subject MILITARY EXPENDITURE
dc.subject ETHNIC HETEROGENEITY
dc.subject INTERNATIONAL SECURITY
dc.subject CIVIL LIBERTIES
dc.subject HUMAN CAPITAL
dc.subject POLICY DISCUSSIONS
dc.subject DURATION OF CONFLICT
dc.subject POLITICAL VIOLENCE
dc.subject REBELS
dc.subject PUBLIC SERVICES
dc.subject FIGHTING
dc.subject RISK OF CONFLICT
dc.subject COST OF REBELLION
dc.subject POLITICAL LEADERSHIP
dc.subject REVOLUTIONS
dc.subject INFANT MORTALITY
dc.subject UNEMPLOYMENT
dc.subject ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES
dc.subject VIOLENT CONFLICT
dc.subject INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION
dc.subject MILITARY BUDGETS
dc.subject HEALTH SECTOR
dc.subject CONFLICT MANAGEMENT
dc.subject NATIONS
dc.subject LEVEL OF POVERTY
dc.subject SECONDARY EDUCATION
dc.subject DEATHS
dc.subject VICTIMS
dc.subject ETHNIC GROUP
dc.subject SOCIAL SECTORS
dc.subject CIVIL WAR
dc.subject CONFLICT RISKS
dc.subject PUBLIC SERVICE
dc.subject DEVELOPMENT POLICY
dc.subject CONFLICT RISK
dc.subject SOCIAL SECURITY
dc.subject POPULOUS COUNTRIES
dc.subject JOURNAL OF CONFLICT RESOLUTION
dc.subject SOCIAL POLICIES
dc.subject VIOLENT CONFLICTS
dc.subject GOVERNMENT POWER
dc.subject HIGH RISK
dc.subject CIVIL SERVICE
dc.subject ECONOMIC GROWTH
dc.subject INTERNATIONAL STUDIES
dc.subject ETHNIC POLITICS
dc.subject MILITARY SPENDING
dc.subject SECURITY FORCES
dc.subject FOUNDATIONS
dc.subject YOUNG PEOPLE
dc.subject PEACE RESEARCH
dc.subject ETHNIC DIVISIONS
dc.subject NATIONAL DEFENSE
dc.subject ARMS
dc.subject GENOCIDE
dc.subject LIMITED RESOURCES
dc.subject POLITICAL RIGHTS
dc.subject SERVICE DELIVERY
dc.subject POLITICAL OPPOSITION
dc.subject WARFARE
dc.subject MATERIAL RESOURCES
dc.subject ADEQUATE EDUCATION
dc.subject DURATION OF PEACE
dc.subject CIVIL PEACE
dc.subject DEMOCRACY SCORE
dc.subject INTERNAL CONFLICT
dc.subject POPULATION SIZE
dc.subject SOCIAL COHESION
dc.subject TOLERANCE
dc.subject ENERGY CONSUMPTION
dc.subject ARMED FORCE
dc.subject YOUNG MALE
dc.subject QUALITY OF LIFE
dc.subject POLITICAL PARTICIPATION
dc.subject POLITICAL SUPPORT
dc.subject RESOURCE MOBILIZATION
dc.subject RURAL AREAS
dc.subject EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT
dc.subject MILITARY EXPENDITURES
dc.subject BASIC HUMAN NEEDS
dc.subject HUMAN CAPITAL FORMATION
dc.subject VIOLENT MEANS
dc.subject NATURAL RESOURCE
dc.subject MILITARY PERSONNEL
dc.subject POLITICAL CHANGE
dc.subject ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
dc.subject POLITICAL PROCESS
dc.title Oil and Civil Conflict : Can Public Spending Have a Mitigation Effect? en


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