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Improving Transparency in Pharmaceutical Systems : Strengthening Critical Decision Points Against Corruption

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dc.contributor.author Cercone, James A.
dc.contributor.author Cohen, Jillian Clare
dc.contributor.author Macaya, Roman
dc.date.accessioned 2014-10-14T17:00:56Z
dc.date.available 2014-10-14T17:00:56Z
dc.date.issued 2002-10
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10986/20426
dc.description.abstract This study presents a diagnostic framework and methodology to evaluate a pharmaceutical system s vulnerability to corruption and to determine which corrupt practices can have a major impact on the system s ultimate efficiency. We thus provide: (a) a systematic and quantifiable assessment of the extent to which a country s pharmaceutical system is vulnerable to corrupt practices; and (b) the identification of potential actions to increase the system s resistance to corruption, and ultimately, improve access of the population to good quality, essential medicines. The diagnostic framework and methodology permit users to identify key decision points in the pharmaceutical supply and distribution system (registration, selection, procurement, distribution, service delivery and use); assess the extent to which a country s current policies and practices at each of these key decision points make the system vulnerable to corruption; and understand the range of options that could reduce this vulnerability. This diagnostic tool has been designed for use by World Bank health specialists involved in health lending operations that include pharmaceutical components, and their national counterparts to help them identify points of vulnerability in the pharmaceutical system, address these points, and thus help ensure that pharmaceutical expenditures are maximized. While developed in the context of the health systems of Latin America and the Caribbean (and implemented in a pilot study in Costa Rica), the methodology can be modified with ease so that it is applicable to other regions. en
dc.language English
dc.language.iso en_US
dc.publisher World Bank, Washington, DC
dc.rights CC BY 3.0 IGO
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/igo/
dc.subject HEALTH INITIATIVES
dc.subject HOSPITALS
dc.subject INDUCED DEMAND
dc.subject ADJUDICATION
dc.subject USER FEES
dc.subject LEADERSHIP
dc.subject PHARMACEUTICAL POLICIES
dc.subject PHARMACEUTICAL PRICING
dc.subject ECONOMIC POLICY
dc.subject MORBIDITY
dc.subject ACCOUNTABILITY
dc.subject PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR
dc.subject PHYSICIANS
dc.subject HEALTH CARE SYSTEM
dc.subject SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
dc.subject PHARMACISTS
dc.subject VULNERABILITY
dc.subject HEALTH COSTS
dc.subject HEALTH PROBLEMS
dc.subject CITIZENS
dc.subject INTEGRITY
dc.subject PUBLIC HOSPITALS
dc.subject DISCRETION
dc.subject HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT
dc.subject ANALGESICS
dc.subject PUBLIC OFFICIAL
dc.subject HOUSEHOLD INCOME
dc.subject AUDITS
dc.subject TENDERING
dc.subject MEDICAL SPECIALTIES
dc.subject PHARMACEUTICAL PROCUREMENT
dc.subject POLICY MAKERS
dc.subject PUBLIC HEALTH CARE
dc.subject WASTE
dc.subject BASIC SERVICES
dc.subject ABUSES
dc.subject HEALTH SERVICES
dc.subject CULTURAL PRACTICES
dc.subject ANTIBIOTICS
dc.subject PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY
dc.subject DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
dc.subject BEST PRACTICES
dc.subject OPERATING COSTS
dc.subject FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT
dc.subject EQUILIBRIUM
dc.subject COUNTERFEIT DRUGS
dc.subject DECISION MAKING
dc.subject DISCLOSURE
dc.subject INDIVIDUAL HEALTH
dc.subject PUBLIC PHARMACIES
dc.subject CIVIL SERVANT
dc.subject PROCUREMENT
dc.subject SUPPLY CHAINS
dc.subject BRIBES
dc.subject PHARMACY
dc.subject PATIENT COMPLIANCE
dc.subject HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS
dc.subject NURSES
dc.subject PACKAGING
dc.subject PHARMACEUTICAL SUPPLIES
dc.subject CLINICS
dc.subject CORRUPT
dc.subject GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS
dc.subject THEFT
dc.subject POLICY DECISIONS
dc.subject SANITATION
dc.subject MULTINATIONAL
dc.subject WORKING CONDITIONS
dc.subject NATIONAL HEALTH SYSTEM
dc.subject MONOPOLY
dc.subject PATIENTS
dc.subject ILLNESSES
dc.subject PHARMACEUTICAL DISTRIBUTION
dc.subject THERAPEUTICS
dc.subject HEALTH ORGANIZATION
dc.subject TRANSPARENCY
dc.subject CONFIDENCE
dc.subject SANCTIONS
dc.subject HEALTH INSURANCE
dc.subject PATIENT
dc.subject TRANSPORTATION
dc.subject HEALTH CARE
dc.subject ALLOCATION OF RESOURCES
dc.subject QUANTITATIVE DATA
dc.subject HEALTH SECTOR REFORM
dc.subject SPECIFIC INCENTIVES
dc.subject HOSPITAL RECORDS
dc.subject NUTRITION
dc.subject PHYSICIAN
dc.subject NATIONAL DRUG
dc.subject PERCEPTION OF CORRUPTION
dc.subject MEDICINE
dc.subject NATIONAL HEALTH INSURANCE
dc.subject MEDICAL STORES
dc.subject DRUGS
dc.subject PUBLIC INFORMATION
dc.subject SUPPLY SYSTEMS
dc.subject POLICY DEVELOPMENT
dc.subject PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS
dc.subject BRIBE
dc.subject BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS
dc.subject PUBLIC POLICIES
dc.subject PHARMACEUTICAL
dc.subject DRUG STORAGE
dc.subject PROCUREMENTS
dc.subject HEALTH CARE PROVISION
dc.subject ACTIVE INGREDIENTS
dc.subject PURCHASING
dc.subject QUALITY CONTROL
dc.subject PUBLIC SERVICES
dc.subject DOCTORS
dc.subject PUBLIC HEALTH
dc.subject GLOBAL POPULATION
dc.subject TECHNICAL SKILLS
dc.subject LAWS
dc.subject PUBLIC HEALTH EXPENDITURES
dc.subject AUDITOR
dc.subject PRESCRIPTIONS
dc.subject WORKERS
dc.subject HEALTH FACILITIES
dc.subject EXPENDITURES
dc.subject HIDDEN COSTS
dc.subject INVENTORY CONTROL
dc.subject EPIDEMIC
dc.subject ESSENTIAL DRUGS
dc.subject CRIME
dc.subject HEALTH SECTOR
dc.subject CERTIFICATION
dc.subject DRUG CONSUMPTION
dc.subject HEALTH CARE PROVIDER
dc.subject FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT
dc.subject FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSIONS
dc.subject PATIENT CARE
dc.subject MORAL HAZARD
dc.subject COLLUSION
dc.subject PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS
dc.subject ESSENTIAL MEDICINES
dc.subject HIV/AIDS
dc.subject EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEILLANCE
dc.subject PHARMACEUTICAL LEGISLATION
dc.subject HEALTH CARE SYSTEMS
dc.subject HEALTH SYSTEMS
dc.subject PUBLIC HEALTH CARE SERVICES
dc.subject ANTICORRUPTION
dc.subject SOCIAL SECURITY
dc.subject HEALTH PROFESSIONALS
dc.subject CORRUPT PRACTICES
dc.subject TREATMENT GUIDELINES
dc.subject MEDIA
dc.subject EMPLOYMENT
dc.subject ECONOMIC GROWTH
dc.subject MONOPOLIES
dc.subject PENALTY
dc.subject RESOURCE ALLOCATION
dc.subject PUBLIC OFFICIALS
dc.subject QUALITY ASSURANCE
dc.subject WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION
dc.subject DRUG PRESCRIBING
dc.subject PRIVATE PHARMACIES
dc.subject MEDICAL CARE
dc.subject PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH
dc.subject PHARMACEUTICAL SYSTEMS
dc.subject LIMITED RESOURCES
dc.subject SERVICE DELIVERY
dc.subject HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS
dc.subject ACCESS TO PHARMACEUTICALS
dc.subject DRUG SELECTION
dc.subject INFORMATION SYSTEM
dc.subject GOOD GOVERNANCE
dc.subject PUBLIC FUNDS
dc.subject PUBLIC POLICY
dc.subject PHARMACEUTICAL SUPPLY
dc.subject HEALTH POLICY
dc.subject INVENTORY MANAGEMENT
dc.subject HEALTH RESEARCH
dc.subject PROBABILITY
dc.subject DRUG UTILIZATION
dc.subject DOSAGE FORMS
dc.subject INCOME
dc.subject PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANIES
dc.subject PROCUREMENT OFFICES
dc.subject VACCINATION
dc.subject CORRUPTION
dc.subject PHARMACEUTICALS
dc.subject DRUG TESTING
dc.subject INFECTIOUS DISEASES
dc.subject POLITICAL APPOINTEES
dc.subject ANTICORRUPTION POLICIES
dc.subject GROUP DISCUSSIONS
dc.subject FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES
dc.subject DISTRIBUTION OF PHARMACEUTICALS
dc.subject ENFORCEMENT OF LAWS
dc.subject INFORMATION SYSTEMS
dc.subject NDP
dc.subject MINISTER
dc.subject POLLUTION
dc.subject HEALTH OFFICIALS
dc.subject CASH FLOW
dc.subject DRUG PRICES
dc.subject FEASIBILITY
dc.subject MEDICINES
dc.subject COMPETITIVE BIDDING
dc.subject FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
dc.subject DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
dc.subject PRIMARY CARE
dc.subject SAFETY STOCK
dc.subject HOSPITAL
dc.subject MINISTRY OF HEALTH
dc.subject HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
dc.subject HEALTH SYSTEM
dc.subject MARKETING
dc.subject MEDICAL SUPPLIES
dc.title Improving Transparency in Pharmaceutical Systems : Strengthening Critical Decision Points Against Corruption en


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