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Environmental Health in Nicaragua : Addressing Key Environmental Challenges

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dc.contributor.author World Bank
dc.date.accessioned 2014-01-17T20:50:22Z
dc.date.available 2014-01-17T20:50:22Z
dc.date.issued 2013-01
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10986/16588
dc.description.abstract The Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region has a unique mix of qualities and challenges when it comes to the environment. It is exceptionally endowed with natural assets, with globally significant biodiversity and valuable crops, and also harbors the world s greatest carbon sink in the Amazon. The purpose of the series is to contribute to the global knowledge exchange on innovation in environmental and water resources management and the pursuit of greener and more inclusive growth. The series addresses issues relevant to the region s environmental sustainability agenda from water resources management to environmental health, natural resource management, biodiversity conservation, environmental policy, pollution management, environmental institutions and governance, ecosystem services, environmental financing, irrigation and climate change and their linkages to development and growth. In this particular paper, the author presents the findings of a study looking at three fundamental environmental health risks in Nicaragua, notably inadequate water and sanitation, indoor and outdoor air pollution. The results are striking in that these three risks alone amount to an estimated 2.4 percent of the country s gross domestic product (GDP), affecting primarily the poorer segments of the population. The study proceeds to look at priority investments and solutions, including by ranking potential interventions in terms of their costs and the expected benefits. en
dc.language English
dc.language.iso en_US
dc.publisher Washington, DC
dc.relation.ispartofseries Latin America and Caribbean Region Environment and Water Resources occasional paper series;
dc.rights CC BY 3.0 IGO
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/igo/
dc.subject SANITATION FACILITIES
dc.subject DEATHS OF CHILDREN
dc.subject ECOSYSTEM SERVICES
dc.subject INFECTIONS IN WOMEN
dc.subject AGE GROUP
dc.subject SEPTIC TANK
dc.subject WTP
dc.subject URBAN WATER SUPPLY
dc.subject ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
dc.subject MORBIDITY
dc.subject ILL HEALTH
dc.subject SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
dc.subject VENTILATION
dc.subject HOSPITAL ADMISSIONS
dc.subject VULNERABILITY
dc.subject HEALTH PROBLEMS
dc.subject INDOOR AIR QUALITY
dc.subject RURAL WATER
dc.subject MUNICIPAL WATER
dc.subject AIR QUALITY MONITORING
dc.subject POPULATION SUBGROUPS
dc.subject SANITATION SECTOR
dc.subject INVESTMENT COSTS
dc.subject WATER SANITATION
dc.subject GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT
dc.subject ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
dc.subject BIODIVERSITY
dc.subject ILLNESS
dc.subject COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS
dc.subject RATES OF URBANIZATION
dc.subject HEALTH DAMAGE
dc.subject CANCER
dc.subject POLLUTION EXPOSURE
dc.subject WATER CONSUMPTION
dc.subject POLICY MAKERS
dc.subject WASTE
dc.subject ENVIRONMENTAL INSTITUTIONS
dc.subject BENEFIT ANALYSIS
dc.subject POOR HEALTH
dc.subject POTABLE WATER
dc.subject SANITATION COVERAGE
dc.subject HEALTH EFFECTS
dc.subject DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
dc.subject SEWAGE
dc.subject TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
dc.subject CHILD MORTALITY
dc.subject OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION
dc.subject COST OF WATER
dc.subject PIT LATRINES
dc.subject SANITATION SERVICES
dc.subject ADULT MORBIDITY
dc.subject ECOSYSTEM
dc.subject EMISSION TAXES
dc.subject RURAL SANITATION
dc.subject CHRONIC BRONCHITIS
dc.subject PROGRESS
dc.subject PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION
dc.subject CLEANER FUELS
dc.subject MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLY
dc.subject QUANTITY OF WATER
dc.subject SANITATION
dc.subject NATURAL RESOURCES
dc.subject PERSONAL HYGIENE
dc.subject HEALTH BURDEN
dc.subject HEALTH INTERVENTIONS
dc.subject HEALTH RISKS
dc.subject NATURAL DISASTERS
dc.subject ILLNESSES
dc.subject AVERAGE COSTS
dc.subject NATURAL GAS
dc.subject URBAN AIR POLLUTION
dc.subject ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY
dc.subject HEALTH OUTCOMES
dc.subject URBAN CENTERS
dc.subject TRANSPORTATION
dc.subject WATER USE
dc.subject HEALTH CARE
dc.subject WASTE DISPOSAL
dc.subject INDOOR AIR POLLUTION
dc.subject RURAL DRINKING WATER
dc.subject URBAN POPULATION
dc.subject MORTALITY RATES
dc.subject INDOOR AIR
dc.subject AVERAGE DAILY CONSUMPTION
dc.subject CLIMATE CHANGE
dc.subject MATERNAL HEALTH
dc.subject WELLS
dc.subject ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS
dc.subject BENEFIT-COST ANALYSIS
dc.subject POPULATION GROWTH RATE
dc.subject DIESEL
dc.subject RESPIRATORY ILLNESSES
dc.subject DRUGS
dc.subject HOSPITALIZATION
dc.subject AIR QUALITY
dc.subject URBAN WATER
dc.subject OZONE
dc.subject PUBLIC WATER
dc.subject HUMAN CAPITAL
dc.subject INTERVENTION
dc.subject EMISSION REDUCTION
dc.subject HUMAN HEALTH
dc.subject MARGINAL COSTS
dc.subject ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION
dc.subject ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
dc.subject POTABLE WATER SUPPLY
dc.subject NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
dc.subject CARBON
dc.subject BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION
dc.subject LEGAL STATUS
dc.subject MARGINAL COST
dc.subject ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGES
dc.subject POLLUTANTS
dc.subject EXPENDITURES
dc.subject DOSE RESPONSE
dc.subject CHILD MORTALITY RATE
dc.subject WATER POLLUTION
dc.subject MORTALITY
dc.subject RURAL WATER SUPPLY
dc.subject MEDICAL TREATMENT
dc.subject POLLUTION IMPACTS
dc.subject PARTICULATE MATTER
dc.subject CLEAN FUEL
dc.subject HEALTH DAMAGES
dc.subject COAL
dc.subject ENERGY USE
dc.subject DEATHS
dc.subject RISK FACTORS
dc.subject URBAN AREAS
dc.subject PRACTITIONERS
dc.subject NUMBER OF PEOPLE
dc.subject DRINKING WATER
dc.subject AIR POLLUTION
dc.subject PUBLIC SERVICE
dc.subject AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION
dc.subject ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY
dc.subject DEMOGRAPHICS
dc.subject MORTALITY RATE FOR CHILDREN UNDER AGE
dc.subject URBAN POPULATION GROWTH
dc.subject ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY
dc.subject OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE
dc.subject HIGH CHILD MORTALITY
dc.subject DISASTERS
dc.subject PARTICULATE POLLUTION
dc.subject OUTDOOR AIR QUALITY
dc.subject PRIVATE COSTS
dc.subject EMISSIONS
dc.subject ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS
dc.subject ADULT MORTALITY
dc.subject ENVIRONMENTAL
dc.subject ENVIRONMENTAL RISK
dc.subject WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION
dc.subject WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
dc.subject WAGES
dc.subject LIVE BIRTHS
dc.subject LOCAL CAPACITY
dc.subject SERVICE PROVISION
dc.subject HEALTH IMPACT
dc.subject PUBLIC AWARENESS
dc.subject RURAL POPULATIONS
dc.subject ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE
dc.subject HEALTHY LIFE
dc.subject AIR POLLUTION CONTROL
dc.subject RURAL POPULATION
dc.subject BASIC SANITATION
dc.subject AIR POLLUTION MEASURES
dc.subject POOR WATER QUALITY
dc.subject ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
dc.subject PREMATURE DEATH
dc.subject CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
dc.subject URBAN POLLUTION
dc.subject ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
dc.subject ECONOMIC IMPACT
dc.subject YOUNG CHILDREN
dc.subject AIR QUALITY STANDARDS
dc.subject WATER SUPPLY
dc.subject RISK OF ILLNESS
dc.subject HEALTH CARE SERVICES
dc.subject PREMATURE MORTALITY
dc.subject WATER RESOURCES
dc.subject DISSEMINATION
dc.subject CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
dc.subject INDIVIDUAL HOUSEHOLDS
dc.subject PREMATURE DEATHS
dc.subject PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION
dc.subject QUALITY OF LIFE
dc.subject NUMBER OF NEW CASES
dc.subject POLLUTION
dc.subject RURAL AREAS
dc.subject MEDICINES
dc.subject COST-BENEFIT ANALYSES
dc.subject PRIMARY CAREGIVERS
dc.subject HOSPITAL
dc.subject MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS
dc.subject MINISTRY OF HEALTH
dc.subject HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
dc.subject DISABILITY
dc.subject HYGIENE
dc.subject QUALITY OF SERVICE
dc.subject ELDERLY
dc.subject NATURAL RESOURCE
dc.subject RESPIRATORY ILLNESS
dc.subject CHILD HEALTH
dc.subject MARGINAL BENEFITS
dc.subject RESPIRATORY DISEASES
dc.subject ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
dc.title Environmental Health in Nicaragua : Addressing Key Environmental Challenges en
dc.title.alternative Salud ambiental en Nicaragua : los principales desafios ambientales en
dc.rights.holder World Bank


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