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Does Infrastructure Reform Work for the Poor? A Case Study from Guatemala

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dc.contributor.author Caridad Araujo, Maria
dc.contributor.author Foster, Vivien
dc.date.accessioned 2013-06-12T21:05:02Z
dc.date.available 2013-06-12T21:05:02Z
dc.date.issued 2004-01
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10986/13877
dc.description.abstract Following the 1996 Peace Accords, Guatemala embarked on a major program of infrastructure reform involving the restructuring and privatization of the electricity and telecommunications sectors and a substantial increase in infrastructure investments partially financed by privatization proceeds. As a result, the pace of new connections to electricity, water, and sanitation services increased by more than 40 percent. Moreover, households in traditionally excluded sectors-the poor, rural, and indigenous populations-were twice as likely to be the beneficiaries of a new infrastructure connection than they had been prior to the Peace Accords. The teledensity index increased by a factor of five from 4.2 in 1997 to 19.7 in 2001, largely because of the growth in cellular telephones, which now outnumber fixed lines. The number of public telephones in rural areas increased by 80 percent since the Peace Accords, so that 80 percent of rural households are now within six kilometers from a public telephone. Although real electricity tariffs increased by 60-80 percent following the reform, residential consumers have been shielded by a "social tariff" policy that has kept charges at pre-reform levels. This policy, which costs US$50 million a year, does little to benefit poor households. The reason is that 60 percent of poor households are not connected to the electricity network, and those that are consume modest amounts of electricity and hence capture only 10 percent of the total value of the subsidy. In contrast, poor households without access to electricity pay about US$11 a kilowatt-hour (or 80 times the electricity tariff) to light their homes with candles and wick lamps. The resources used to finance the "social tariff" would therefore be better used in further accelerating the pace of new connections for currently underserved households. en
dc.language English
dc.language.iso en_US
dc.publisher World Bank, Washington, DC
dc.relation.ispartofseries Policy Research Working Paper;No. 3185
dc.rights CC BY 3.0 IGO
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/igo/
dc.subject MINIMUM SUBSIDY
dc.subject CAPITAL COSTS
dc.subject DEREGULATION
dc.subject RURAL INFRASTRUCTURE
dc.subject SEWERAGE
dc.subject COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES
dc.subject UTILITIES
dc.subject SAVINGS
dc.subject WATER TARIFFS
dc.subject CUBIC METER
dc.subject URBAN COMMUNITIES
dc.subject REGULATORY AGENCY
dc.subject PROVISION OF WATER
dc.subject PRIVATE OPERATORS
dc.subject RURAL WATER
dc.subject PIPELINE
dc.subject SANITATION SECTOR
dc.subject PUMPS
dc.subject FUELS
dc.subject PRIVATE SECTOR OPERATORS
dc.subject ILLEGAL CONNECTIONS
dc.subject PRIVATE COMPANIES
dc.subject URBAN AREAS
dc.subject DRINKING WATER
dc.subject CENTRAL GOVERNMENT
dc.subject CELLULAR MOBILE PHONES
dc.subject TELECOMMUNICATION
dc.subject SERVICE PROVIDERS
dc.subject BIOMASS
dc.subject WATER SECTOR
dc.subject TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
dc.subject WATER
dc.subject PROGRAMS
dc.subject LICENSES
dc.subject SANITATION SERVICES
dc.subject CONCESSION CONTRACTS
dc.subject TOWN
dc.subject ELECTRICITY
dc.subject INFRASTRUCTURE
dc.subject TELEPHONE LINES
dc.subject UTILITY SERVICES
dc.subject LOW-INCOME HOUSEHOLDS
dc.subject TELEDENSITY
dc.subject HOUSING
dc.subject COST RECOVERY
dc.subject TELECOMMUNICATIONS LAW
dc.subject TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICES
dc.subject WATER QUALITY
dc.subject SANITATION
dc.subject RURAL INFRASTRUCTURE INITIATIVES
dc.subject UNIVERSAL ACCESS
dc.subject LATRINES
dc.subject RURAL ELECTRIFICATION
dc.subject PRIVATE OPERATOR
dc.subject WATER PROJECTS
dc.subject TELECOMMUNICATION SECTORS
dc.subject PRIVATE SECTOR
dc.subject SEPTIC TANKS
dc.subject RADIO
dc.subject QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS
dc.subject TELECOMMUNICATIONS SECTOR
dc.subject WATER NETWORKS
dc.subject RURAL TELEPHONES
dc.subject REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
dc.subject TELECOMMUNICATIONS OPERATORS
dc.subject RIVERS
dc.subject POLITICAL PARTICIPATION
dc.subject APPLIANCES
dc.subject TELECOMMUNICATIONS
dc.subject TELEPHONES
dc.subject COLLABORATION
dc.subject HOUSEHOLDS
dc.subject SEWERAGE NETWORK
dc.subject MUNICIPALITIES
dc.subject RURAL COMMUNITIES
dc.subject PRIVATE PARTICIPATION
dc.subject QUALITY OF SERVICE
dc.subject MINIMUM SUBSIDY CONCESSIONS
dc.subject TELEPHONY SERVICES
dc.title Does Infrastructure Reform Work for the Poor? A Case Study from Guatemala en
dc.rights.holder World Bank


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